Sights of the architectural complex

The famous archaeological complex includes the following architectural objects: Akapana Pyramid; the Kalasasaya temple, on the territory of which the famous “Gate of the Sun”, the monoliths of Ponce (Spanish: Monolito de Ponce) and the Monk (Spanish: Monolito de Monje) are located; the semi-underground Temple of the Stone Heads (Spanish: Templete Semisubterraneo); temples “Cantataglita”, “Putuni” and “Gate of the Moon” (Spanish: Puerta de la Luna).

Gate of the Moon

At the western part of the Kalasasaya pyramid there is another gate, but of a smaller size, the Gate of the Moon (Spanish: Puerta de la Luna). They represent a monolithic andesite stone arch 2.25 m high, the frieze of which is also decorated with carved ornaments.

Temple of Stone Heads

To the east of the main entrance to Kalasasaya is the semi-underground Temple of Stone Heads (Spanish: Semisubterraneo Templete). The sanctuary was the first object of the ancient settlement where the Bolivian State Archaeological Center began to carry out systematic excavations, and was the first to be restored.

This is an almost square structure at the base (28.5 × 26 m), deepened into the ground by more than 2 m. The drainage stone system of the Temple is still in operation. Along the entire perimeter of the sanctuary, 57 massive stone pillars of red sandstone are installed at regular intervals, between which smoothly hewn slabs are laid.

The walls of the Temple are decorated with 175 stone heads carved from limestone and embedded in the walls. Based on the fact that all the heads are completely different, some researchers are of the opinion that these are images of representatives of various ethnic groups that were part of the state of Tiwanaku.

The degree of preservation of the sculptures is not the same, the level and manner of execution of the heads are also different – it seems that they were created by different masters and at different times. In the center of the sanctuary stands a monolith called “Monolito Barbado” (Bearded Monolith).

Some scholars believe that the Temple represented the underworld, while the Kalasasaya symbolized the Earth.

Temple of Cantataglia

To the east of Kalasasaya lie the ruins of the semi-underground temple of Kantatallita (Kantatallita) or “Luz del amanecer” (Morning Light). The sanctuary was almost completely destroyed, only scattered huge granite blocks (weighing from 1 to several tens of tons) remained from it. The temple was a rectangular building with a massive arch.

The carved frieze of the arch, apparently, was decorated with gold plates, since a chain of holes for attaching plates stretches along its edge. The frieze is badly damaged, the gold was removed, most likely by the conquistadors.

Puma Punku

Another mysterious temple complex rises in the ancient city – “Puma Punku” (aim. Puma Punku; “Puma’s Gate”). These gigantic Gates were erected from monolithic andesite and granite blocks (up to 3 m high, weighing up to 150 tons), without the use of a bonding solution. Each stone is perfectly polished, the blocks are tightly fitted to each other without the slightest gap. The upper part of the gate is decorated with a carved relief, in the center of which is a large human figure with a halo of sun rays around the head, which flow into the image of a cougar.

According to modern scientists, this figure symbolizes the supreme God Tiwanaku. On both sides of the main deity, 48 almost identical images of the “condor-man” are carved.

What rituals were performed near these two gigantic structures? Many well-known modern psychics, mediums and parapsychologists are sure that these gates are the doors to other worlds and epochs created by ancient master magicians.

“Gibbet of the Incas”

Centuries before Europe thought about the shape of our planet, the Andean civilization of Tiwanaku already mastered the exact sciences, such as astronomy, physics and mathematics. Today, along the Andes mountain range, the remains of the cities of the ancient people are found in different places.

One of these places is located on the shores of Lake Titicaca, this is the “Gallows of the Incas”, one of the oldest astronomical observatories in the world. The discoverers of the structure, built 4 thousand years ago, in 1978 called the observatory a gallows, mistakenly assuming that this was a former place of execution. As a matter of fact, she has nothing to do with the Incas either.

Thanks to a special system of holes in stones, ancient people determined the days of the winter and summer equinoxes, and gained knowledge about agricultural cycles. To this day, locals use the signals from the ancient Tiwanaku Observatory to schedule agricultural work. The Bolivians say: “The ancestors passed on their knowledge to us, thanks to which we are able to get good harvests.”

Curious facts

The question of the exact date of foundation of T. remains open to this day. Scientists testify that the ceramics found in the ruins are decorated with images of long-extinct animals. It has been established that during the catastrophe of 9612 BC, when Atlantis died, dozens of animal species died out, including mammoths, woolly saber-toothed tigers, rhinos, toxodon, and so on. It is they who are depicted on T.’s ceramics, which means that the artists of the ancient empire lived in the times preceding this catastrophe.

A civilization that disappeared over 1000 years ago has existed for 27 centuries (3 times longer than the Roman Empire). But mankind knows only a grain of its history – the great Inca Empire, which existed for just over 80 years.

The culture of Tajikistan has reached the highest level of development over the centuries of its history. It is amazing that the state that owned most of the South American continent, NEVER resorted to war! During excavations in the region of the ancient empire, not a single evidence of the use of weapons was found.

So far, nowhere in the world have stones been found processed with such precision as in Tiwanaku. Giant stone blocks are stacked in such a way that even a blade cannot be inserted between them.